## 7.1 Learning Objectives

After completing this lab, you should be able to

- Conduct independent samples
*t*tests in R Commander and SPSS - Interpret the output of an independent samples
*t*test from R Commander and SPSS - Report the results of an independent samples
*t*test in APA style

Before you begin, make sure you understand the following concepts from the lecture portion of the course

- The goal of an independent samples
*t*test, including what types of research questions it can be used to test - The concepts behind independent samples
*t*tests*t*distributions- Degrees of freedom
- Critical
*t*values

This lab will also draw on the following skills learned in earlier labs. You can review previous labs at any time.

- Loading data into R Commander and SPSS. You can review this skill in the videos on R Commander basics (beginning at 3:32) and SPSS basics (beginning at 0:48).
- Producing descriptive statistics in R Commander or SPSS. You can review this skill in the videos on Descriptive statistics in R Commander (beginning at 0:27) and Descriptive statistics in SPSS (beginning at 1:03).

You can download the dataset we will be using in this lab here. In R Commander, you can load the `Wells`

dataset directly from the `carData`

package. For further information about the dataset and variables, refer to the documentation.