## 8.5 Reporting Paired Samples *t* Tests in APA Style

- Provide the mean and standard deviation of the difference scores. In this case, this is the difference between self-reported and measured height. You can use the subscript “diff” to indicate that the mean and standard deviation you provide are of the difference scores.

To do this, you will need to create a new variable representing the difference between self-reported and measured height. If needed, you can review how to do this in the videos on Variable transformations in R Commander (beginning at 1:30) or Variable transformations in SPSS (beginning at 0:32).

Then, find the mean and standard deviation of this new variable. If needed, you can review how to do this in the videos on Descriptive statistics in R Commander (beginning at 0:27) or Descriptive statistics in SPSS (beginning at 1:03).

2. Indicate the significance and direction of the results.

- Provide the degrees of freedom.

4. Provide the *t* statistic. Round the *t* value to two decimal places.

- Provide the
*p*value. Report the exact*p*value unless*p*< .001.